pods for primates : a catalogue of surfboards in australia since 1900
home catalogue history references appendix

  exhibition 2006

1956 - 2006.
Presented by

Geoff Cater

in conjunction with
Shoalhaven Heads Surf Life Saving Club.
McIntosh St, Shoalhaven Heads NSW.

An official event of History Week
Supported by the History Council of NSW.

Sunday 17th September 2006. 9.00 a.m. - 4.30 p.m.
Free Entry


A chronological collection of  fifty years of surfcraft designs;
including the Okinuee, Pig, Surfoplane, Noserider, Vee Bottom, Tracker, Mini Gun, Egg, Twin Fin,
Keel, Spoon, Bonzer, Coolite, Flextail, MR Twin,  Channel Bottom, Lazor Zap, Thruster
and a host of others.
Supplemented with reference books,  magazines, surfing accessories,
photographs and illustrations (from 1779).
Early surfboards in Australia, dating from about 1912, were around 9 ft, built from a solid timber plank and without a fin.
Ossie Dowing’s Surf Shooting Board, 1917. SLSA House, Bondi.
By the 1940’s, a lighter construction method of plywood fixed on a timber frame became the dominant design.
These were variously known as Racing 16s, Kook Boxes or (Tom) Blake Hollows.
With the SLSC’s emphasis on racing and  rescue,  lengths expanded in excess of 16 ft.

In conjunction with the 1956 Melbourne Olympic Games, teams from Hawaii and the USA  were invited to compete in an international  surf life saving exhibition at Torquay, Victoria.
As well as their race boards, the teams also brought several +9 ft balsawood and fibreglass Malibu boards, fitted with large fins.

The impressive performance at Torquay and several Sydney beaches of riders such as Tom Zahn and Greg Noll radically changed Australian board design.

The process further accelerated with the introduction in 1960 of the polyurethane foam board.

From 1966 board volume (thickness, length and width) was consistently reduced in combination with advances in fin design.

By 1970 standard length was  below 7 ft, followed by the  universal adoption of the down rail and a decade of intensive experimentation with multiple fins & detailed bottom features.

In 1980 Simon Anderson of Narrabeen introduced the three finThruster, now the world’s standard surfboard design.

With the contemporary developments of computer shaping, molded epoxy boards and global out-sourcing, the future status of the iconic hand-made surfboard is unclear.

                      - CONTACTS -                                        - LOCATION MAP -
Geoff Cater
PO Box 37
Shoalhaven Heads NSW 2535
(02) 4448 7490

Shoalhaven Heads 
Surf Life Saving Club
McIntosh St
Shoalhaven Heads. 2535.
02 4448 7218.

This is an official event of Historyweek supported by the History Council of NSW.

* Lt. James Cook, Dr Solander and Joseph Banks observed surfriding in Tahiti, 29th May 1769.

Thanks to ...
 S.L.S.A., Shoalhaven Heads SLSC,
Terry Simister, Shoalhaven City Library,  Jeff Fox, John McInnes, Paul Flack,
 Bob Simmons and Duke Kahanamoku.

Surfboard Exhibition, Shoalhaven Heads SLSC, September 2006.
Exhibition : (About) 100 YEARS OF AUSTRALIAN SURFBOARD RIDING, 1909 - 2009.

Gerringong Town Hall, Sunday 13th December 2009.
Catalogue - in Preparation : 1. Surfboards

1956 Okinuee
 Manufacturer uknown. Approximately 9ft 6''.
Plywood on timber frame, timber fin.
A  Malibu design, built with the existing hollow wood technology before Australian manufacturers were able to source supplies of balsawood.
This example was originally varnished but currently with a painted finish and is the club's Honour Board.
An early example of this is Geoff. Cohen's board, the first Manly S.L.S.C. member killed in World War II, which became the club's War Honour Roll.
Item courtesy of Shoalhaven Heads Surf Life Saving Club.
1957 Balsa Malibu

Manufacturer unknown. 8 feet  8 1/2''
Balsawood & fibreglass with D fin.
Similar to the boards brought to Australia by US and Hawaiian life savers to the International Surf Carnival at Torquay in conjunction with the 1956 Melbourne Olympics.
Extensively restored, the painted graphics are typical of the period.
Item courtesy of James Merrick Cater. (JMC)
1959 Pig Board

Scott Dillon Surfboards, Brookvale. 9ft 1''.
Foam and fibreglass with fibreglass fin.
The board has expanded above the stringer - an indication of early difficulties with foam production.
The full colour decor disguised blank and glassing defects.
Original metal adhesive decal and fin, which is a radical design  for this period.
Scott Dillon started surf-rding at Bondi around 1950 on a solid timber board.
A  noted big wave rider, he was a major Brookvale manufacturer, circa 1959 to 1972.
1962 Malibu
Manufacturer unknown. 9 feet  8 1/2''
Balsawood & fibreglass with redwood stringer and laminated timber fin and tailblock.
The surfcraft permit sticker is a reproduction.
Possibly made by Wally Caryle, Rockdale. Possibly hollow.
1965 Noserider

Gordon and Smith Surfboards, Caringbah. 9ft 7''
Foam and fibreglass with full colour pigment decor, dorsal fin and rare laminated foam tailblock.
The Australian company was started by Floyd Smith of Gordon and Smith Surfboards USA, circa 1965.
The nose patch and band decor is derived from the noseriding 'craze' epitomised by Tom Morey's (designer of the Morey Boogie Board, see P1975) where the competitor was timed when riding on the designated nose section.
Item courtesy of Paul Flack.
1965 Stringerless

 Hohessee Surfboards, Queensland. 9ft.
Foam, clear with Volan rail lap, Pop Art decals, cloth nose patch and high aspect fin.
The stringerless design was introduced by Midget Farrelly and the hign aspect fin by George Greenough in early 1965.
1966 Thin Rail ('Sam')

Keyo Surfboards, Brookvale. 9ft 4''.
Foam with redwood stringer, clear with Volan rail lap and laminated high aspect fin.
Typical Australian thin-rail design with a noticeable reduction in thickness and ridden by Nat Young in his emphatic victory in the 1966 World Chamionships.
The Keyo decal was based on the classic Hobie Surfboards (USA) decal.
1967 Vee Bottom Stubby

Shane Surfboards, Brookvale. 8ft.
Stringerless foam blank, Volan rail lap, double diamond deck patch and chamfered pod.
An extreme design with a wide tail, deep vee bottom and high aspect flex fin.
Critically the design was to undergo radical decline in length from about 8ft 8'' to 7ft by early 1968.
Commonly refered to as the beginning of the Short Board Revolution.

1967 Vee Bottom Stubby
Wallace Surfboards, Brookvale. 7ft 8''.
Stringerless foam blank, Volan rail lap, Pop-art decal and chamfered pod.
An extreme design with a wide tail, deep vee bottom and high aspect flex fin.
Critically the design was to undergo a radical 20% reduction in length from about 9ft  to 7ft by early 1968.
Commonly refered to as the beginning of the Short Board Revolution.
Item courtesy of Paul Flack.
1968 Pintail Vee-Bottom.

WM Surfboards, Auburn. 7ft 11''.
Following the failure of the Vee-bottom design in the Hawaii in December 1967, Australian designers initially gave their deep-vee bottoms a full pintail.
Further development led to the adoption of gun-type templates, resulting in a further reduction in volume.
This board has unfortunate decor work, and is severely warped.
1968 Pintail ('Little Red')
George Rice Surfboards, Victoria. 7ft 10''.
Stringerless foam blank, Volan rail lap, heart deck patch and Waveset finbox.
The Waveset by Morey-Pope (USA) was the first finbox commercially accessable to manufacturers.
Available with a range of molded fin designs, the most popular were by George Greenough.
1968 Tracker

Gordon Woods Surfboards, Brookvale. 8ft.
Stringerless foam blank, Volan rail lap, pinlines and multi-colour deck patch.
Ususally credited to Bob McTavish this shows a strong Hawaiian gun influence with a square tail to increase manourveability for Australian conditions.
Item courtesy of Bob Munroe.
1968 Pintail

Shane Surfboards, Brookvale. 7ft 6''.
Stringerless foam blank, Volan glassed with reverse scallop deck patch, gel resin and  gel resin/glitter decor,
 pinlines, SAFE set fin box.
Safeset was a finbox system similar to, but not compatable with, the Waveset design. 
1969 Mini Gun

Surf Design (Surfboards), Queensland. 7ft. Probably shaped by Dick van Straleen.
Foam blank with triple (3) black Glue-line stringers, volan glassed with foil knee-patch. Safe-set fin box .
A radical mini-gun template, probably built for Burleigh Heads.
The glueline stringer returned some strength to the board and gave the shaper a fixed sight  line.
1969 Bullet

Keyo Surfboards, Brookvale. 7ft. Shaped by Bob McTavish.
Stringerless foam blank , Volan glass with Vee knee patch.Safeset fin box.
A wide tail version of the Min-gun, probably for Sydney beachbreaks.
Bob McTavish is a renowned Australian surfboard designer.
1969 Diamond Tail

Peter Drouyn Surfboards, Queensland. 6ft 3''  Peter Drouyn, shaper and possibly rider.
Stringerless foam blank, Volan glassed with 1 1/2 inch rail lap, Waveset fin box, spray markings.
Radical length and weight for this period but Drouyn was a surfer of exceptional ability, winning the Makaha Contest in 1970.
1969 Wide Tail ('White Kite')

Farrelly Surfboards, Brookvale. 6ft 4''
Foam blank with black glueline stringer, pinlines, red/yellow pigment laminate. No Fin.
A further adaptation of the Bullet design, this was most closely identified with Ted Spencer's 'White Kite' model for Shane Surfboards.
The glassing of the red/yellow pigment laminate to give the orange rails indicates a high level of craftmanship.
1969 Wide Tail ('White Kite')

Jim Pollard Surfboards, Newcastle. 6ft 4''
Foam blank with black glueline stringer, pinlines, green marbled pigment laminate, deck decor ?.
A further adaptation of the Bullet design, this was most closely identified with Ted Spencer's 'White Kite' model for Shane Surfboards.
Jim Pollard is credited with the develpoment of the Channel Bottom design in 1978.
1969 Egg - Super Stubby

Age Surfboards, Lakemba-Bankstown,  6ft 7".
Foam blank with black glueline, Tinted Volan glass with tail patch.
A popular Australian design, notably ridden in this period by Wayne Lynch and Nat Young.
Age Surfboards was a rare successful 'inland' company, the multi-coloured Bird decal was copied from Bing Surfboards (USA).
1969 Egg - Super Stubby

Keyo Surfboards, Brookvale,  5ft 8 1/2". Shaped by Geoff McCoy
Foam blank with green glueline, tinted Volan glass with tail patch.
A popular Australian design, notably ridden in this period by Wayne Lynch and Nat Young.
Probably one of the last boards made by McCoy at Keyo, before he started his own company.
1969 Egg - Super Stubby

Jackson Surfboards, Caringbah,  5ft 8 1/2". Shaped by Laurie Byrne
Foam blank with black glue line stringer. Volan glassed with tinted bottom, Vee tail patch and foil fin patch.
 Resin pin lines.
A popular Australian design, notably ridden in this period by Wayne Lynch and Nat Young.
Laurie Byrne subsequently worked  for Byrne (no relation) Surfboards, Wollongong NSW, where he shaped many boards for World Champion, Tom Carroll.
Item courtesy of Paul Flack.
1969  Slide Slipper (?)

Odin Surfboards, Ballina, 6 ft 2'' ?.   Shaped by Rick Purnell
Foam blank with dark red glueline, Volan glass, tint, marble deck patch and resin pinlines.
A possible example of one of the most obscure surfboard designs, it featured a flat bottom, low rails, hyper-kicked nose and a small fin, often interchangable with a fin box.
Side slipping, occassionally extending to an extreme spinning 360, became an recognised manourve in circa 1969, as demonstrated  in John Severson's Pacific Vibrations (1970).
Designed by Reno Abellira (Hawaii), in Australia, it was taken up by Midget Farrelly and Terry Fitzgerald.

1969  Slide Slipper (?)
Keyo Surfboards, Brookvale, 6 ft 2''.   Shaped by Steve Lennard
Foam blank with dark red glueline,  Volan glass, spray/tint/pigment?, fin box.
A possible example of one of the most obscure surfboard designs, it featured a flat bottom, low rails, hyper-kicked nose and a small fin, often interchangable with a fin box.
Side slipping, occassionally extending to an extreme spinning 360, became an recognised manourve in circa 1969, as demonstrated  in John Severson's Pacific Vibrations (1970).
Designed by Reno Abellira (Hawaii), in Australia, it was taken up by Midget Farrelly and Terry Fitzgerald.
This board features an Australian version of the Guidance Fin System with a segmented base that slots into a molded box, and clicks back to lock and secured with a plastic tab. 
1970 Twin fin.

Walsh Surfboards, Elanora, 5 ft 4". Shaped by Jim Walsh.
Foam blank with blue glueline stringer, Volan glassed  with scalloped 2/3 deck patch, scalloped nose patch,
 fin patches.
This US design (Corky Carroll, Mike Eaton , Rolf Aurness and David Nuuhiwa) was directly imported by Tom
 Hoyle to Bennett Surfboards, Brookvale in late 1970.
 Concurrently, Terry Fitzgerald and Greg Hodges "built two five-sixes" from design details culled from
 negotiations between Shane Surfboards and Corky Carroll, post the Johanna World Contest, 1970.
 The design quickly dominated 50% of the Sydney market, notably from McCoy Surfboards. 
1970 Pin tail.

Farrelly Surfboards Brookvale, 6 ft 6".
Foam blank with 1/8 inch plywood stringer, clear volan laminate with deck and tail patches.
Strong Hawaiian gun influence with down rails and S deck.
1971 Diamond tail.

Farrelly Surfboards, Brookvale,  6 ft 3 1/2''.
Foam blank with 1/8 inch plywood stringer, clear volan laminate.
Common Sydney beach break template, now with down rails.
Item donated by Nick De Jong.
1971 Diamond tail

Hutchinson Surfboards, Brookvale ,6 ft 7".
Foam blank, 1/8'' redwood stringer, volan glassed, tint laminate, deck and tail patches. 
1971 Tri fin

Plastic Fantastic Surfboards (USA), 6 ft. Shaped by Danny Calohan.
Foam blank, 1/4" redwood stringer, Volan glassed with tint, spray deck.
An early three fin model with small side fins either side of the centre fin, the design was shaped at Bennett Surfboards, Brookvale, by Bob McTavish.
Experimentation indicated that the design was more manourvable if the side fins were placed forward of the centre fin.
A major influence on the Bonzer design, see 1974.
1971 Pop-Out

Farrelly Surfboards, Brookvale. 5ft 5''
Foam blank, with false glue-line stringer , Volan  glassed (lap cuts) with bottom  pigment laminate
Popouts first appeared in around1970 and were usually a 5ft 6" X 20" Egg.
They commonly used stringerless glassed blanks with minimal shaping to reduce prices by about 40%.
Like most mass-produced craft, most references in surf literature are usually derogatory.
They were also manufactured by Shane, Wallace and Merrin Surfboards (Queensland). 
1971 Diamond Tail, adapted Tri fin.
McGrigor Surfboards, Brookvale, 6 ft 5''.
Foam blank, 1/4" redwood stringer, Volan glassed with tint.
An later three fin model with post-production small side fins forward of the centre fin, to increase manourvability.
A major influence on the Bonzer design, see 1974.
1972 Pintail

Bluebird Surfboards, Byron Bay, 7ft. Shaped by Bob McTavish
Foam blank, 1/16" redwood  stringer, tint laminate, spray/paint.
North coast mini-gun.
Item located by Andy Mark.
1972 Keel Fin Pintail

Mystic Expressions (Surfboards), Queensland?  7  ft.
Foam blank,  stringer?,  two colour pigment Volan laminate.
A design for very long walled waves, most identified with Victorian manufacturer Pat Morgan Surfboards and ridden circa 1972 by Wayne Lynch  and Nat Young (the later in Alby Falzon's Crystal Voyager, 1973).
This crude example is undoubtedly backyard manufacturered and may have been cut from an older and larger board (''Backyard Butchery''). 
1973 Pintail

Barry Taylor Surfboards, Nowra, 7 ft 2" Shaped by Barry Taylor.
Foam blank, 1/8" redwood  stringer, Volan glass pigment laminate,  spray, homemade legrope plug.
A hard railed pintail gun, the commonly reproduced Lightning Bolt decor was to become the 1970's most recognised surfboard logo as ridden by Gerry Lopez of Hawaii.
The homemade legroe plug is an upturned chair leg stopper, as recommended in Tracks magazine.
Barry Taylor manufactured surfboards in Nowra from about 1972 to 1990.
1974 Bonzer

Cooper Surfboards, Coffs Harbour, 6ft 11''
Fibreglassed foam blank, 1/8" cedar stringer, spray, molded fin with legrope bridge.
The Bonzer was originally designed  by Duncan and Malcom Campbell  (USA), 1971 - 1973
Characterized by forward concave  leading to double concave each side of the centre fin with two keel- type fins set on the rails (radically toed-in and cambered), the design appears to be based on Rogallo hang gliders.
Notable Australian riders included Wollongong's Terry Richardson and  Ian Cairns from Western Australia, who rode a Bonzer to to win the 1973 Smirnoff Contest, Laniakea, Hawaii.
Californian Bob Cooper had an indelible influence on Australian surf-riding and surfboards.
He started surfing at  Malibu in 1952, in 1959 he made his first visit to Australia, followed by an extended stay 1964 - 1966 and permanent residence from 1969.
Initially working for major manufactuers in Brookvale and Queensland, Cooper started Cooper Surfboards at Coffs Harbour, circa 1970. 
1976 Stinger

Scott Dillon Dillon Surfboards, Coffs Harbour, 6 ft 8".  Shaped by Billy Urbany (USA)
Fibreglassed foam blank, with 1/4" redwood stringer, tint laminate, resin pinlines.
Designed in 1974 by Ben Apia (Hawaii)  and characterized by  The Sting - flyers set 2/3 rds back from the nose and a swallow tail.
Fin boxes were common and early models featured a stepped bottom at the flyers.
Famously ridden by Buttons and Larry Berltlemann (Hawaii) and Mark Richards of Australia.
Scott Dillon closed his Brookvale factory and moved to Coffs Harbour to ''retire'', circa 1972.
This board spent much of it's life as a hand painted sign for a surf shop. 
1976 Round Tail

Barry Bennett Surfboards, Brookvale, 7 ft. Shaped by John Foster.
1/4 '' Stringer, foam blank, fibreglassed, spray.
Donated by John McInnes.
1976 Diamond Tail

Gordon and Smith Surfboards, Caringbah, 7 ft. Shaped by Peter Townend.
Volan (?) Fibreglassed foam blank, 1/8" redwood  stringer, spray.
Handshaped Tube Shooters model with thick foiled timber fin, by Queenslander, Peter Townend.
Townend won the inaugral IPS 1976 World Tour rankings, second was fellow Bronzed Aussie, Ian Cairns.
Both riders appeared in John Milius' homage to the early days of Malibu, Big Wednesday (1978). 
1976  Rounded Pin

McCoy Surfboards, Avoca Beach, 6 ft 6".
Fibreglassed foam blank, 1/4" redwood  stringer, spray,
Standard flat deck, rounded pintail with wide based Brewer fin of this period.
Purchased new by Bob Armitage at Nowra,1976 and extensively ridden and repaired.
1976 Double Flyer Swallow Tail

McCoy Surfboards, Avoca Beach, 7 ft 2''. Designed by Reno Abelliro (sic)  model.
Fibreglassed foam blank, 1/4" redwood  stringer, laminated pigment, pinlines, spray?
The 'Ligtning Bolt' pinlined rail decor and the dappled Brewer fin were features of this model.
Made under license in Australia, McCoy also produced models from fellow Hawaiian, Barry Kanaiaupuni.
Strangely, Reno's surname is spelt incorrectly... Abellira not Abelliro.
1976 Pintail

San Juan Surfboards, Byron Bay, 6 ft 8". Shaped by John Blanch.
Foam blank, 1/8'' redwood stringer, Volan fibreglass with tint.
A beautiful example of a Noth coast pintail of the period.

1978 Pintail
Nat Young Surf Design, Mona Vale, 6 ft 5".
Fibreglassed foam blank, 1/4" redwood  stringer, spray, 8" fin box.
Heavily influenced by Joey Cabell (Hawaii) this design featured a compressed pintailgun template, concave bottom, soft box rails with a hard edge, large nose lift and a small Greenough single fin.
First adaptation for Nat Young  was by Harold Iggy at Weber Surfboards (USA) in late 1969.
Nat shaped the design from 1970 to 1980, variously at Byron Bay, Bennett Surfboards and Mona Vale.
Donated by John McInnes.
1978 MR Twin Fin

Mark Richards Surfboards, Byron Bay, 5 ft 10" Shaped by Bob Margetts.
Foam blank, 1/8" redwood stringer, spray, wide base laminated fins.
Familiar with the early 1970's Twin Fin and influenced by Reno Abellira's Fish board, Mark Richards  built his own version and subsequently refined it with Dick Brewer in Hawaii 1976-1977.
The most popular design of the late 1970's, promoted somewhat by Richards' extrodinary consistant contest performances.
First manufactured by Morning Star Surfboards, MonaVale) they were later made by a variety of shapers at Maddog Surfboards, Byron Bay and Gordon and Smith Surfboards, USA.
Donated by John McInnes.
1978 Double Flyer Pintail

Bronzed Aussies Surfboards, Caringbah,  5ft 10". Shaped by Terry Bishop.
Fibreglassed foam blank, 1/4" redwood  stringer, spray, 9 1/2" fin box. Cheyene Horan Model
Manufactured at Gordon and Smith Surfboards during Cheyene's short membership of the Bronzed Aussies  and not by his longterm shaper, Geoff McCoy.
1978 Jet Bottom

Kerrawa Surfboards, Avalon, 5 ft 5''. Shaped by Erle Pedersen.
Fibreglass, foam blank, 1/8 '' Stringer, spray, finbox.
Extreme bottom channels, the board was customed ordered by Simon Chipper for stand-up riding.
1979 MR Twin Fin

Byrne Surfboards, Fairy Meadow, 6 ft. Shaped by Laurie Byrne.
Foam blank, 1/16" redwood stringer, spray.
An example of one of the many copies of Mark Richards' popular design, see above.
Laurie Byrne shaped many boards for World Champion, Tom Carroll.

1979  Twin Fin
Pipe Dream Surfboards, Gold Coast, 6 ft. 2''. Shaped by Murray Burton.
Foam blank, 1/16" redwood stringer, spray.
An example of one of the many variations of Mark Richards' popular design, see above.
The bottom decor, "K.B", probably incidates the board was a custom order.
1979 Channel Bottom
Freeflight Surfboards, Ballina, 5ft 11''. Shaped by Phil Myers
Fiberglassed foam blank, 1/8'' redwood stringer, spray, Multifins fin box. Col Smith Channel model
Developed by Jim Pollard of Newcastle, the design was ridden to contest success by Newcastle surfer, Col Smith.
Channels became more subtle features through the 1980's, virtually disappearing from design by 1990.
1979 Flyer Pintail

Emerald Surfboards, Taren Point, 6 ft 6''. Shaped by Steve Griffith.
Fiberglassed foam blank, reverse T-Band stringer, spray.
The board features an unusual three band stringer of timber between high density foam and a science fiction themed decal.

1980 Mini Mal
Sky Surfboards, Byron Bay, 7ft 2". Shaped by Bob McTavish.
Foam blank, 1/4" redwood  stringer, pigment laminate, spray, post production fin boxes.
The beginning of the Malibu revival, this board has been extensively ridden and repaired, including the later addition of fin boxes.
1981 Lazor Zap

Gordon and Smith Surfboards, Caringbah,  6 ft.
Fibreglassed foam blank, 1/4" redwood  stringer, spray, fin box.
A copy of a Geoff McCoy single fin design, developed from his earlier No-Nose concept, that was an attempt to counter the small wave performance of the MR Twin Fin.
By 1985, both designs would be eclipsed by Simon Anderson's Thruster.Three Fin.
Famously ridden by Cheyne Horan and the design later featured the Horan-Ben Lexan Keel Fin.
McCoy would later morph the design into the Nugget model, that adopted the standard Three Fin system.
1981 Thruster (Flyer Round Tail)

Energy Surfboards,  Brookvale, 5 ft 9''. Shaped by Scott Beggs
Fibreglassed Surfblanks foam blank, 1/4" redwood  stringer, spray.
As a response to the current small wave contest  success of the MR Twin Fin, Simon Anderson developed the design during 1980 -1981
Familiar with virtually every design variation of the last ten years, Anderson took his final inspiation from a Twin Fin with a small rear stabilizer fin.
He introduced the design in 1981 with contest victories at Bells Beach, Coke Surfabout (Sydney) and the Pipeline Masters.
The wide rail panels were classic decor for this manufacturer.
1981 Tri Fin

Nat Young Surf Design, Mona Vale, 6 ft. Shaped by Nat Young.
Fibreglassed foam blank, 1/4" redwood  stringer, spray, fin box.
Nat Young's early 1980's design in reponse to the small wave contest  success of the MR Twin Fin, it f
eatured a large central fin with smaller rail fins.
1982 Thruster

Aloha surfboards, Brookvale, 6 ft. Shaped by Greg Clough.
Fiberglassed foam blank, 1/8'' redwood stringer, texture deck, spray decor.
The board features subtle channels, texture (no wax) deck and adhesive Gorrilla Grip patches.
Aloha Surfboards were given international exposure by professional success of world champions Barton Lynch, Damien Hardman and Pam Burridge.
Donated by John McInnes.
1982 Thruster

Town and Country Surfboards, Byron Bay, 5ft 10''  Shaped by Gunther Rohn.
Fiberglassed foam blank, 1/8'' redwood stringer, white spray blank and central fin box.
The board features subtle channels and the decals include T&C Hawaii, T&C Australia and Gunther Rohn (from South Africa).

1982 Bat tail Twin Fin plus Stabilizer.
Nivana surfboards, Kincumber, 5 ft 8". Shaped by Ronnie Woodward.
Fin experimentation continued following the Thruster, some based on Anderson's original inspiration - a twin fin II with a smaller centre trailing stabilizer fin. 
1993 Thruster

Channel Islands Surfboards, made under licence by Insight Surfboards Mona Vale, 6 ft 6"
Foam blank, 1/8'' three ply wood stringer, fibreglassed, spray, FCS fin plugs.
Ten years after the Thruster, the design has been finely adjusted - thinner, a more balanced template, reintroduction of concave bottoms, pronounced rocker and the fin plug system.
Designed by Al Merrick of Santa Barbara, California, famous for shaping boards for world champions Tom Curren and Kelly Slater.
Donated by John McInnes.
1995 Malibu Classic

Hobie Surfboards, manufactured by Stewart Surfboards, California. 9 ft 1"  Shaped by Phil Edwards.
Fibreglassed foam blank, 2" balsa x 1/4"redwood T-Band stringer and two 1/4"redwood stringers, finbox.
A reproduction of one of Phil Edwards' 1960's design..
Considered by many to be the world's best surfer, circa 1960 -1963, he is credited with the first personal surfboard model (Hobie, 1961), the first to ride Pipeline (1963) and the first surfing autobiography (1967).
His interest in catamarran sailing also influenced Hobie Alter's development of the Hobie Cat, the world's biggest selling sailboat.
He toured Australia in 1962 with Bruce Brown, filming Surfing Hollow Days (1963) and returned as the head judge at the 1964 Manly World contest.
Hobie Surfboards was one of the first to promote the use of foam blanks (circa1959) and was the dominant US board manufacturer in the 1960's.
2003 Epoxy Nugget

Surftech Surfboards, Thailand,  7 ft 7 1/4''  "Shaped" by Geoff McCoy.
Epoxy Fibreglassed, polystryne foam blank, spray.
Geoff McCoy's 1990's adaptation of his Lazer Zap design (1980) with Thruster fins.
Expoxy board construction was extensively researched by European sailboard manufacturers from 1986.
By 1996 they dominated the sailboard market and epoxy technolgy was transferred to surfboards, initially longer Malibu designs.
Item courtesy Natural Necessity Surf Shop, Geringong.
2003 Softboard (Epoxy - Sponge Foam)

Entusiastically adopted by sur-riding schools for their safety features and robust construction.
Item courtesy Tom Sherringham.

Paipo Exhibition, Shoalhaven Heads SLSC, September 2006.

Catalogue - in Preparation : 2. Paipos - prone boards
P1933 - 1970 Surfoplane
Manufacturer Unknown , 2ft 7''
Moulded four ribbed rubber mat, inflated by  valve at the tail, two moulded rubber handles on the nose.
"The Surfoplane was invented by a Sydney doctor in 1933, Dr Ernest Smithers of Bronte NSW, who worked for eight years to develop it.  Sir Charles Kingsford Smith, his friend was a proprietor of the invention."
- Alison Lee, a descendent of Ernest Smithers.
The design was to be used worldwide before supplanted by the Coolite and Canvas Mat in the 1970's.
Surfoplanes were the first surfcraft of future World champions Mark Richards and Tom Carroll.

P1960 Plywood Belly Board and Flippers
Reproduction : Geoff Cater
Varnished plywood board with redwood handle, branded text and twin fins.
Usually ridden with flippers (swim fins), popular with juvenile riders thousands of these boards were built in school workshops across Sydney in the early 1960s.

P1962 Twin Fin Bellyboard- Kneeboard
Barry Bennett Surfboards, Brookvale. 5ft 1''.
Stringerless blank, Volan glassed with cream gel coat and twin long base fins.
A new decal is laminated over the damaged original - thanks to Greg Bennett at Bennett Surfboards.
P1967 Kneeboard
Barry Bennett  Surfboards, Brookvale. 5 ft 7''
1/8 '' Stringer, foam blank, Volan fibre glass.
The post production resin gel coat probably covers extensive repairs to the rails and/or bottom.
Item donated by Andy Mark.

P1972 Coolite
Haminex Pty Ltd : Midget Farrelly Model,  4 ft 10"
Coolite, Adhesive decal, Rubber fin.
A hugely popular craft, it quickly replaced the long lasting Surfoplane.
By the end of the 1970's, Coolite boards were available for $2.00 extra with a purchase of a bucket of Kentucky Fried Chicken.
Item donated by John McInnes.
P1972 Zippy Boards

 Large 'Super Surfer' 3ft.  Small  'Hunters Toyline' 16''
Molded hollow plastic.
Mainly used as a swimming aid, but the larger models were used by some juvenile surf-riders.
P1973 Greenough Spoon Kneeboard

Jackson Surfboards, Caringbah, 5 ft 10"
Stringerless blank, Volan glassed with pigment laminate on bottom
Low volume flex body kneeboard, originally designed and ridden by George Greenough in 1965.
The board was designed specifically for hollow, powerful, long walled waves such as Rincon (California) or Lennox Head (NSW).
Greenough's boards, fins, films and his surf-riding  performance (on Spoons and Mats) was a huge influence.
P1973 Spoon deck Kneeboard

Backyard manufactrurer,   5ft 6"
Fibreglassed foam blank, 1/4"stringer,  tint laminate.Hand drawn decal and G&S logo.
Homemade board with a strong Greenough influence but with increased floatation and simpler construction.

P1974 Flextail Slab Kneeboard
Barry Taylor Surfboards, Nowra, 5 ft 6"
Foam blank, 1/8" redwood  stringer, Volan glass tint laminate, tail-deck patch, resin gel coat decor, Handmade fibreglass fin box.
An example of The Slab, originally designed by Peter Crawford in 1969 at Wallace Surfboards (the name credited to Midget Farrelly) as an alternative to the low floatation Greenough Spoon, the Slab has been in constant production in all fin combinations.
The short flex tail and the fin are a direct Greenough influence, also note the hand made fibreglass Bahne design fin box.
P1975 Belly Bogger

Belly Booger Pty. Ltd. 3ft 7''
Hollow Molded plastic with twin rounded keel fins.
A mass production board, again with Greenough inspired spoon deck.
This example is severely deformed.
Item courtesy of Rob Bell.
P1976 (Canvas) Mat

Merrin Investments, Pty Ltd;  5 ft 4"
Rubberized canvas, plastic and rope handles,molded rubber twin fins.
Although ridden and promoted by George Greenough, these were largely marketed as supplementary amusement for "surfer's girlfriends".
P1976 Kneeboard  Slab Tri-fin

Crozier Surfboards, Dee Why. 5 ft 4". Shaped by Chris Crozier.
Foam blank with 1/4" redwood stringer. Multi sprayed. One 14" and two 6" finboxes.
Later version of Peter Crawford's Slab design, the board demonstrates this period's  intensive experimentation with multiple fins & detailed bottom features.
Item donated by Tony Matthews.
P1980 Morey Boogie

Morey Boogie, Mach 7. 3ft 6''. Designed by Tom Morey.
Foam core with laminated sponge deck and rails, and plastic 'slick' bottom.
Invented by Tom Morey in 1971, based on the Hawaiian paipo and incorporating flex (Greenough) and ‘vacuum track rails’ (Greenough / Brock hull design).
Originally offered as a buyer assembled/mail order product the soft construction circumvents bodysurfing area restrictions.
 Extensively copied, it is the largest selling surfcraft design of the twentith century.
P1983 Four fin Kneeboard

Express Shapes (Surfboards), Heathcote. 5 ft 7''. Shaped by Paul Armstrong
Foam blank, 1/8'' redwood stringer, fibreglassed, finboxes, spray decor.
Short lived multi-fin experimentation, credited to Glen Winton from the Central coast, following the successful introducton of Simon Anderson's Thruster, 1981.

Catalogue - in Preparation : 3. Sailboards
Q1986 Saiboard
Farrelly Surfboards, Brookvale. 8ft 6'' Shaped by Midget Farrelly.
Foam blank with double stringers, extensive spray, tri finboxes.
High performance wave sailing board shaped by Midget Farrelly.

Q1986 Saiboard
Mike Davis Surfboards, Kiama. 8ft 6''?
Foam blank with double stringers, extensive spray, finboxes.
Assymetric sail board designed for riding the wave in one direction only, in this case left.
Item donated by Andy Mark.
Catalogue - in Preparation : 4. Images

R1778 John Webber : "A View of KaraKakooa, in Owyhee.", Detail and Portrait of Capt. James Cook.
First drawing of a surfboard by the official artist of Cook's third voyage to the Pacific that included the discovery of the Hawaiian Islands.
Although it is commonly reported, Cook did not comment on surf-riding in his journals.
There are, however, at least seven accounts of surfboards and/or surf-riding in the journals of Cook's crew.
Lueras (1984) Pages 44 - 45, Lueras (1984) Page 47 and Postcard :Australian Portrait Gallery?
R1819.a Jacques Arago, Engraving : Alphonse Pellion : "The Houses of Kraimokou".
A wonderfully detailed  ilustration of Hawaiian dwellings, with the chief in ceremonial dress and his wife beating
tapa cloth. Like all the other early images, she is bare breasted.
The large Olo board takes a central position in the drawing and presumably a similar culutural position.
Colourised version from the  Mr. and Mrs. Severson Collection, printed in Lueras (1984) Page 35.
R1819.b Jacques Arago : "Wahine, Hawaii, circa 1819."
The image does not illustrate wave-riding and is decorative, rather than informative.

Magan and Finney (1971) Page 19.
Both images originally printed in Freycinet, L : Voyage autour du mode ... 1817 - 1820.
Chez Pillet aine, Paris.  1825, 

R1830 F. Howard :  "Sandwich Island Surf-riders."
The first reported Western image of surf-riding, it correctly identifies stance.
First published in Rev. William Ellis : Polynesian Researches, During a Residence of Nearly Eighty
Years in the Society and Sandwich Islands, Volumes I to IV.
Finney and Houston (1996) Frontpiece. 
R1841 Francis Olmsted  :   "Sandwich Islanders  Playing in the Surf."
The first image by the same writer and artist, certainly based on personal observation.
First printed in Francis Olmsted, F.A. : Incidents of a Whaling Voyage...
Appleton and Co., NY, 1841. Page 222 or 223.
Lueras (1984) Page 39.
R1851 Anonymous, in  Cheever (1851): "Hawaiian Sport of Surf Playing.'' ???
First magazine article with surfing text and surfing illustration.
Image and surf-riding text was printed  in Cheever, Rev. Henry T. : "The Sandwich Islands Today"
The International Monthly Magazine of Literature, Science and Art.
Volume IV, Number III, October 1851, pages 298 - 299. Stringer and Townsend, New York.
Finney and Houston (1996) Page 26.
R1872 Anonymous : "Surf-bathing Failure" and  "Surf-bathing Success"
The images accompanied, famous American author, Mark Twain's account of his attempts at surfboard riding in Hawaii, published in Roughing It (1872), page 258 reproduced.
Margan and Finney (1971) Page and Page . Roughing It page - Lueras

R1874 Wallis McKay : ''Summer Cruising in the South Seas" and "Surf-swimmers".
The cover and frontpiece of.Charles Warren Stoddard's Summer Cruising in the South Seas (1874).
The first book with a surf-riding illustration on the cover.
The frontpiece is a highly detailed illustration indicating various riding positions, stance, duck-diving, waves in sets, off-shore winds and significant wave height.
R1904  S. Cocks (Kiama) : ''Beautiful Illawarra" (Postcard)

A view of Seven Mile Beach and Mt. Coolangatta from Gerroa, the postcard is dated 31st December 1904.
R1908 Hall & Co. : ''Shooting the Breakers, Manly" (Postcard)

Body surfing at Manly Beach, the postcard is dated 13th February 1908, six years before Duke Kahanamoku's visit in 1914-1915..
The message appears to suggest the sender has witnessed the activity.
R1919 A.R. Gurrey : "Riding the Surf at Honolulu".

An early photograph of surf-riding,  probably first printed in The Mid-Pacific Magazine.
This copy accompanied an article, "The Geography of Games" in National Geographic Magazine August, 1919 Volume XXXVI  Number Two.  Page 98. 
R1924  Uncredited : ''Board portrait'', ''Surfing Headstand'' and  R. K. Bonine : ''Riding the Surf".

Photographs from "The Hawaiian Islands" in National Geograghic Magazine February 1924 Volume XLV Number Two.
The board portrait is an advertisment for the Hawaiian Tourist Bureau and the headstand photograph was extensively reproduced as a postcard.
The colour plate is hand tinted, two riders are wearing swimming costumes with the logo of the Outrigger Canoe Club, the world's first formal surf-riding club, circa 1911.
1935 Tom Blake : "Waves and Thrills at Waikiki" (Eight photograhs).

 National Geograghic Magazine May 1935 Volume 47 Number 5.  Pages 597 - 604.
The quiver photograph (probably the first) illustrates solid wood and Blake's early hollow boards and has been extensively reproduced.
The surf-riding photographs, taken from the water, illustrate male, female, tandem and juvenile riders.
The white caped female in the canoe is American aviatrix, Amelia Earhart, who disappeared on her flight from Hawaii.
They were also published in Blake's seminal surf-riding book, The Hawaiian Surfboard (1935).
R1939 Tom Blake : "Improved Hollow Surfboard for All Round Sport"

 Cover, colour illustration  (page 141) and article (pages 174 - 175) from Popular Science Magazine  June 1939 Volume 134 Number 4.
Page 176 (obscured) details surfboard rescue technique and  conversion to a sailboard.
R1967 Bob McTavish : "Bob McTavish is in this wave. He probably had a plan to get out of it."

Surfing World Magazine January 1967 pages 15 to 21.
Bob McTavish's extensive Malibu repetoire circa 1966 with the emphasis on "Involvement", re-defining surfing performance.
Within six months of this article,  Bob McTavish (and others) would reduce board lengths from 9ft 6'' to 7ft 6'',
rendering the Malibu board (and large sections of this article) obsolete for the next fifteen years.

SURF INTERNATIONAL Magazine Vol. 1. No. 2  December1967  - January 1968  Page 9.
Ground breaking analysis of surfing performance that rejects the accepted approach (Detailed in Bob
McTavish is in this wave. He probably had a plan to get out of it. See above) and  establishes the dictum
In design this is achieved by: "Elimination of two feet of board."
R1968 Bob McTavish : "A plastic drinking straw...."

SURF INTERNATIONAL Magazine Vol. 1. No. 3  February - March 1968  Page 11.
Bob McTavish's account of the Honolua Bay sessions, featured in Paul Witig's Hot Generation and Eric
Blum's The Fantastic Plastic Machine

R1971 Murphy - Falzon : "Nat and his boards and his surfing - a pictorial."
Tracks magazine, October 1971, Pages 14 and 15.
Photographs by Gareth Murphy and Albert Falzon, some from Falzon's The Morning of the Earth.
The boards are early examples of Nat Young's Pintail and Backhand (Square tail) designs.

R1973 Bob McTavish : "Pods for Primates - a personal history of surfboard design - Part 1."
Tracks Magazine March 1973
Reprinted circa 1973 in The Best of Tracks.
Images include Duke Kahanamoku, Waikiki Surfer, Phil Edwards and Joey Cabell.
R1973 Bob McTavish : "Pods for Primates - a personal history of surfboard design - Part 2."

Tracks Magazine  April? 1973
Reprinted circa 1973 in The Best of Tracks.
Images include Miget Farrelly, George Greenough, Nat Young and Bob McTavish.
R1974-1977 "Ben Apia Stinger Plans"  (right) and "Mark Richards' Stinger Quiver" (1977).
Plans by Rick Neilson : "Ben Apia's Tiny Bubbles"
Tracks Magazine November 1974 # 50, page 45.
Mark Richards' quiver, circa 1977 includes Stingers by Ben Apia and Dick Brewer and his newly shaped Brewer Twin Fin.
Surfing World magazine, Volume 25 Number 3 July 1977 Page ? Photograph by Hugh McLeod?
R1977 Mark Richards : "The New Look Twin Fin".
Mark Richards' newly shaped Brewer Twin Fin.
Surfing World magazine, Volume 26 Number 1, December 1977? Pages 52-53. Photograph by Hugh McLeod. 
R1977 "Bob McTavish Joins Sky " (Advertisment)
Tracks Magazine, 1977, Page 4.
Demonstrates McTavish's experimentation with a a full range of craft - North Coast speed pins, Guns, Twin Fins, Malibus, Mini Malibus and Kneelboards.

R1978 Bob McTavish : "The Ace in the Hole - The Asymmetric Story".
Seanotes Magazine August/September 1978.  Pages 38 - 39.
An obscure surfboard design development, the asymmetic template had a strong following in sailboard design circa 1983 - 1988. 

R1978 "Bronzed Aussies Surfboards" (Advertisement)
Featuring Ian Cairns, Peter Townend and Cheyene Horan.
Surfing Magazine August 1978. Volume 14. Number 4. Page 9.

R1979 "Windsurfer - The Ultimate Fre Ride"  (Advertisement)
Surfer Magazine, February 1979. Volume 20. Number 2. Page3.
A very early photograph of a wave sailing Windsurfer - note the original teak boom.
Windsurfer decals from both US and European patent holders and Windsurfer board template.
 The Windsurfer was designed by Californian surfers, Jim Drake and Hoyle Scheweitzer, circa 1969.
The board was adapted from the standard Malibu design and the elemental design features were the multi-directional universal and the double sided boom.
Sailboard riding and design would subsequently have a significant influence of surfboard design (epoxy construction) and performance (tow-in surfing).
The off-set mount is due to a magazine printing error.

R1989 Geoff Cater : "Paul Flack & Bryne Sailboard, Shoalhaven Heads."
R1992 John McInnes :''... flat and uninteresting beachbreaks..."
The title is taken from Nat Young's Surfing Australia’s East Coast (1980), Chapter 8. 


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